By Louis Dionne
C++ solves the problem of runtime polymorphism in a very specific way. It does so through inheritance, by having all classes that will be used polymorphically inherit from the same base class, and then using a table of function pointers (the virtual table) to perform dynamic dispatch when a method is called. Polymorphic objects are then accessed through pointers to their base class, which encourages storing objects on the heap and accessing them via pointers. This is both inconvenient and inefficient when compared to traditional value semantics. As Sean Parent said: Inheritance is the base class of evil.
It turns out that this is only one of many possible designs, each of which has different tradeoffs and characteristics. This talk will explore the design space for runtime polymorphism in C++, and in particular will introduce a policy-based approach to solving the problem. We will see how this approach enables runtime polymorphism with stack-allocated storage, heap-allocated storage, shared storage, no storage at all (reference semantics), and more. We will also see how we can get fine-grained control over the dispatch mechanism to beat the performance of classic virtual tables in some cases. The examples will be based on a real implementation in the Dyno library , but the principles are independent from the library.
At the end of the talk, the audience will walk out with a clear understanding of the different ways of implementing runtime polymorphism, their tradeoffs, and with guidelines on when to use one implementation or another.