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pinPortable Console I/O via iostreams

Overload Journal #140 - August 2017 + Programming Topics   Author: Alf Steinbach
Portable streaming is challenging. Alf Steinbach describes how his library fixes problems with non-ASCII characters.

My Boost licensed stdlib header library [stdlib] applies some crucial fixes to the C++ implementation’s standard library, and provides a (hopefully) complete set of wrapper headers that apply these fixes; some functionality used internally in the stdlib implementation; and a number of convenience headers for the standard library.

The most important fix, because it enables portability and reasonable functionality for beginners’ programs, is of char-based text iostreams (e.g. cout) console i/o in Windows. stdlib installs special buffers in the standard iostreams that are connected to the console, and these buffers provide an UTF-8 view of the console. That means that portable ordinary char and std::string based code can present e.g. Norwegian and Russian text in the console, via cout, and can input international text from the user, via cin.

stdlib also provides an UTF-16 view of the console for wchar_t based i/o via the wide iostreams, such as wcout.

The UTF-16 view was functionality that essentially came for free, because it was base functionality needed for the UTF-8 view, and it means that in addition to supporting portable char based code stdlib also supports wchar_t-based pure Windows programs.

Here I discuss only this portable console i/o aspect of stdlib – the other stdlib stuff is also nice, but is not as significant.

Goal: portable console i/o

The main goal with stdlib was to enable simple textbook style console based exploratory C++ programs, like the example in Listing 1.

Listing 1

A student should be able to type in his or her own non-English name into this program, and see it accurately presented back by the program, also in Windows. This goal is accomplished, modulo the Windows console windows’ restriction to the BMP1 part of Unicode.

Without a console i/o fix applied, Visual C++’s runtime library forwards the nullbytes that a Windows console window in UTF-8 mode (codepage 65001) produces for non-ASCII characters, i.e. yielding a name string with embedded nullbytes, which in the console window’s presentation leaves blank areas (see Figure 1).

Figure 1

Using the Visual C++ 2017 compiler cl in Windows 10 and applying the stdlib i/o fix via the /FI option for a forced include gives the output in Figure 2.

Figure 2

This correct result is independent of the console window’s active codepage, and is the same in the *nix world.

The stdlib i/o fix includes a convenience #pragma for Visual C++, setting the execution character set to UTF-8, for otherwise the execution character set would have had to be specified explicitly as UTF-8 in every compilation, like the /utf-8 option in the first compiler invocation above. Visual C++ defaults to Windows ANSI encoding, which depends on the locale Windows is installed for. With g++ the execution character set default is already UTF-8.

The technical problem(s)

I hate to hear ‘Less is more.’ It’s a crock of crap.
~ R. Lee Ermey, American soldier and movie star of Full Metal Jacket [Ermey]

The C and C++ standard libraries’ unified view of console, pipe and file i/o as minimalist streams of bytes, works fine in the *nix world where C and C++ originated. But Windows is based on different ideas, ideas of more rich standard functionality – much richer standard functionality. And so, in Windows the limited byte streams are second or third class citizens, not the primary way to interact with consoles: the streams are evidently there as backward compatibility support for archaic pre-Unicode programs, because UTF-8 console input Just Doesn’t Work™ for non-ASCII characters.

So, what happens if you tell a Windows console window to use UTF-8 encoding, by setting its active codepage to 65001?

As of Windows 10 byte stream output appears to work, but, down at the Windows API level, byte stream input of non-ASCII characters produces just nullbytes, as illustrated by a program that directly uses Windows’ ReadFile and WriteFile functions (see Figure 3).

Figure 3

Additionally, Visual C++’s setlocale in Windows [Microsoft-a] explicitly does not support UTF-8. A possible reason is the C standard’s requirement that a wchar_tcan represent distinct codes for all members of the largest extended character set specified among the supported locales” [C99]. For Windows’ wchar_t type, from the early Unicode adoption, is just 16 bits, which with modern 21-bit Unicode is not enough for all members of an UTF-8 locale.

And in addition to the limited Windows support for UTF-8 in consoles, the C and C++ standard libraries fail to support UTF-8 text handling. There is no functionality for iterating over code points (which can be of a variable number of bytes); the functionality for char classification, such as the C library’s isupper, only works for single bytes, i.e. when the UTF-8 character is in the ASCII subset; the C++ library’s std::ctype::widen, which can deal with a string of encoding units, is rendered impotent for portable code by the fact that there’s no UTF-8 locale in Windows, so there’s no way to tell it that those bytes are UTF-8 encoded text; and so on, and on. AFAIK there’s no solution that addresses all the issues.

However, the lack of C++ standard library support was not a showstopper for the *nix world’s transition to UTF-8. In the late 1990s and early 2000s one simply let existing tools treat UTF-8 as extended ASCII text with occasional pass-them-right-through-please hey just ignore them high value bytes. Today, as of 2017, the *nix world appears to be all UTF-8 for text files, so that approach worked, and hence it can presumably also work for Windows.

Possible solutions

The missing functionality for text handling is offered by various 3rd party libraries, including IBM’s open source ICU library [ICU], and Boost Locale, which is a char-based wrapper over ICU. The Boost Locale documentation notes that “The default character encoding is assumed to be UTF-8 on Windows” [Boost-a]. So evidently, an assumption of UTF-8 as the main text encoding on every platform, including in Windows, is not unheard of.

A mainly all UTF-8 approach for external text and for simple processing, with conversion to and from UTF-16 for e.g. use of ICU, seems to be where we’re heading, also for Windows programs.

Anyway, to work with international text in Windows consoles, especially for beginners, it’s practically necessary to

  • change the default font for Windows console windows2 to one that can display international characters, such as Lucida Console, or else use 3rd party console windows.

With that display fix in place one basically has three options for portable C++ code:

  • use byte stream i/o with some fix applied in Windows, e.g. the standard library’s byte streams with a restricted character set from a national codepage, or with conversion to/from internal UTF-8 such as provided by stdlib;
  • use wide stream i/o (note: the standard library’s wide stream i/o converts to and from external byte streams) with some platform-dependent fix applied, e.g. in Windows, using the standard library’s wide streams with Microsoft’s _setmode extension [Microsoft-b], or again using stdlib, and in the *nix world, with a suitable UTF-8 locale; or
  • use an abstraction that transparently adapts the encoding to the system, selecting between byte and wide stream i/o within the implementation of that abstraction, with an encoding unit type suitably defined for each system.

Some years ago, I saw adaptive encoding and i/o as a viable compromise between conflicting goals [Steinbach13].

One main problem with that approach, however, is that it’s necessarily intrusive, e.g. requiring string literals wrapped in adaptive macro calls like S("Hi") and use of standard streams via adaptive references like sys::out for std::cout, so that

  • the approach can’t handle simple textbook example program code as-is, and hence
  • existing code doesn’t automatically benefit.

This is what stdlib addresses with its UTF-8 console i/o: it can handle textbook example program code as-is, and if existing code uses the C++ iostreams, then that code benefits automatically.

In contrast the nowide library [nowide], adopted in Boost [Boost-b] in June 2017, is an intrusive UTF-8 i/o approach, and thus, except that it handles ordinary nartr literals, it suffers from the drawbacks above.

The nowide web page refers to a 2011 blog posting of mine [Steinbach11] about Unicode in Windows console windows, which, incidentally, is how I became aware of nowide, some time after I started work on stdlib. In that article, I argued for leveraging Microsoft’s _setmode extension, using wide text internally in the C++ program, and I referred to a 2008 blog posting by Microsoft’s Unicode guru Michael Kaplan, titled ‘Conventional wisdom is retarded, aka What the @#%&* is _O_U16TEXT?’ [Kaplan08]. Both stdlib and nowide now go in the opposite direction, using nartr text internally in C++.

General comparison: adaptive versus stdlib versus nowide

The C++ core language is involved in two areas: string literals and process command line arguments, namely the arguments of main. Happily, with the all UTF-8 approach of stdlib and nowide, and with modern compilers’ (especially now Visual C++’s) support for UTF-8 as the execution character set, one can just use ordinary nartr literals. Unfortunately, there seems to be no portable non-intrusive way to fix the encoding of the arguments of main in Windows, and so both libraries provide intrusive, portable means of obtaining UTF-8 encoded command line arguments.

Apart from that the stdlib library is based on only providing transparent fixes to the standard library implementation, and a minimum of new functionality, while the adaptive approach and the nowide library are based on providing alternatives to the core language and standard library in certain areas.

With stdlib’s goal of providing as little new functionality as possible, checking which of stdlib and other libraries provide the most features, would be mostly meaningless. But one can still compare general goals or ideals achievement for the libraries. For the adaptive approach, the table below just lists what will be generally true of any reasonable implementation of that approach.

Goal/ideal Adaptive stdlib nowide
Working nartr Unicode console i/o n/a Success Partial
Working wide Unicode console i/o n/a Success Failure
That it fails gracefully for bad data - Success Failure
Support of coding
Idiomatic char based learner’s C++ Failure Success Success
No <windows.h> namespace pollution - Success Success
Few or no explicit encoding conversions Partial Failure Failure
Using textbook example code as-is Failure Mostly Failure
Automatic benefit for existing code Failure Mostly Failure
Support of building & other tool usage
No large 3rd party library dependency - Success Success
Header only library - Success Failure
Tools, e.g. string display in debuggers Success Failure Failure
Clean build with common compilers - Success Failure

My ‘partial’ mark on nowide’s working is mainly due to its failure to remove carriage return characters from input in Windows (Listing 2). The result is in Figure 4.

Listing 2
Figure 4

This problem, plus a ditto problem with Windows’ convention of using Ctrl Z as EOF marker, has probably already been fixed by the time you’re reading this. But I was perplexed to discover that the library bungled input, which is so fundamental to what it’s all about, after it had been approved for Boost. It’s really strange.

With Visual Studio’s debugger in Windows one can use the format specifier ,s8 on a watch of a raw C string to force UTF-8 interpretation of the bytes. However, with other presentations of nartr strings the VS debugger uses Windows ANSI, even when the program’s execution character set is UTF-8, with gobbledygook as the result. This is the main tool support failure of stdlib and nowide, and it’s one area where the adaptive approach would shine.

Hopefully, in the not distant future the Visual Studio debugger will gain some option to assume UTF-8, or maybe it will just pick up what the program’s execution character set is, not to mention encoding information for each literal, and use that.

stdlib’s not quite 100% success in supporting textbook example code is due to the following constraints:

  • automatic conversion to/from internal UTF-8 for console i/o seems to not be portably possible for C FILE* i/o, and
  • with both Visual C++ and MinGW g++ the arguments of main are (incorrectly) Windows ANSI-encoded even when the execution character set is UTF-8, and a transparent automatic fix appears to not be practically possible.

Command line arguments in stdlib versus nowide

Both stdlib and nowide assume that main arguments on other platforms than Windows are UTF-8 encoded. In Windows, they both use the GetCommandLineW API function to obtain the original UTF-16 encoded command line passed to the process, and CommandLineToArgvW to parse it into individual arguments. stdlib uses this info to provide a separate set of UTF-8 encoded original command line arguments, while nowide uses the info to replace the main arguments with UTF-8 encoded originals.

The intended default usage in stdlib (and what I hope for in some future C++ standard library support for this) is that a Command_line_args object should be default-constructed wherever command line arguments are needed, which supports use in e.g. the constructor of a namespace scope variable, or in some other function without access to the actual main arguments.

As of July 2017, default construction of Command_line_args is implemented only for Windows and Linux, but code that only needs to be portable to these two systems can look like Listing 3.

Listing 3

This can be made fully portable by replacing the main code with Listing 4... which, however, is not possible for the mentioned case of constructor for a namespace scope variable (without employing a time machine to check what the future call of main will have).

Listing 4

The nowide library offers only this latter restricted approach of passing the actual main arguments to a fixer object (see Listing 5).

Listing 5

Using the *nix world convention of representing the command line arguments as an int + char** pair makes it easy to use library functions based on that convention, such as getopt. With stdlib the Command_argv_array class offers this value pair. A key difference is that an instance of stdlib’s Command_argv_array is a copy of the argument string data, so that the data can be freely modified.

Note: with MinGW g++ and nowide the value of n above can be reduced by the declaration of the nowide::args variable, because MinGW g++ provides wildcard expansion of arguments, and the synthesized UTF-8 encoded arguments are not expanded.

Neither stdlib nor nowide provide dedicated wildcard expansion functionality, but stdlib offers portable access to the C++17 filesystem library, which combined with some regular expression matching can do the chore. However, that’s quite complex machinery. E.g. with normal Windows filename wildcards a * doesn’t match backward slashes (which a regular expression simple .* pattern does), and one has to deal with absolute and relative paths. I think wildcard expansion functionality properly belongs with the iteration ability of the filesystem library, and not with mainly a console i/o fix library. Alas, the filesystem library does not yet offer this functionality.

Using the C++17 filesystem library

Sometimes an executable has associated files such as configuration files and resource files, placed in the directory that itself resides in, or in some sub-directory there. Thus, sometimes one needs a path to the executable’s directory. The ‘current directory’, the default origin for relative paths, can be and often is some other directory. Usually the current directory is initially the directory from which the program was launched this time, i.e. some arbitrary directory, anywhere. Since the current directory is used automatically, client code does not usually need its path for e.g. resolving command line filename arguments. But client code does, in general, need the path to the executable’s directory.

However, the C++17 filesystem library

  • provides the generally not needed current directory path, fs::current_path() – where fs denotes std::filesystem – and
  • does not provide the often crucial executable’s directory path.

Happily, the first process command line argument, the first argument of main, is in practice a relative or absolute path to the executable. This is not formally guaranteed, but in practice it’s nearly always so. Ideally then, to determine a path to the executable’s directory, code like this should be sufficient (see Listing 6).

Listing 6

But run the program from a directory where the relative path to the executable’s directory contains non-ASCII characters3, and then this simple, natural and (assuming the first argument of main actually refers to the executable) formally correct code, fails (Figure 5).

Figure 5

What’s going on here?

Running from the executable’s directory would work because with this code the name of the executable, passed to fs::absolute(), is then effectively a dummy – any filename-like string would do.

But running it from the parent directory involves a non-ASCII character, π, in the path, which is served correctly, as UTF-8, to fs::absolute(). Here things go haywire because, as of July 2017, the Visual C++ and MinGW g++ implementations of the C++17 filesystem library ignore the execution character set and instead assume that nartr strings are and should be Windows ANSI encoded… Since Windows ANSI is a country-specific encoding choice the result Ï€ can even be different on other machines.

It’s trivially easy to check if the execution character set is UTF-8, and these implementations lay down the rules from scratch, with no frozen history constraining them. So, as I see it, the behaviour is really not excusable. Unfortunately, as far as I know there’s no way that stdlib can fix this functionality transparently.

Until all common implementations of the C++17 filesystem library conform to the standard one therefore has to be very careful about always explicitly specifying UTF-8 in code using the filesystem library, by e.g. using the fs::u8path factory function (see Listing 7).

Listing 7

… and the other way by using e.g. the fs::path::u8string conversion function:

  string const dfp_utf8 = df_path.u8string();

In the first example "data" contains only ASCII characters and can therefore be served raw to the filesystem machinery, but "blueberry-π.txt" is decidedly non-ASCII so that it must be manually tagged as Unicode via a call to fs::u8path.

As with the nowide library’s incorrect console input operation in Windows, the continued existence of this fundamental level failure of the filesystem library implementations, so very far into the game, appears perplexing, bewildering, inexplicable. But hopefully both the Visual C++ and the MinGW g++ implementations will be fixed. And, as Jerry Pournelle used to put it, Real Soon Now™.

The workarounds, the extra care and explicitness, is all that’s needed with Visual C++. However, with MinGW g++ 7.1 and earlier the workarounds run into another filesystem implementation bug. For the MinGW g++ 7.1 implementation of fs::u8path can only handle UTF-16 encoded wide strings…

Happily, stdlib provides a transparent fix for that.

But, that fix must be explicitly requested, by defining STDLIB_FIX_GCC_U8PATH, because it’s function template specializations that at least in theory won’t necessarily build for a later or earlier version of the compiler, though this code may still work and may be necessary also for such versions. (See Figure 6.)

Figure 6

In passing: internally this fix uses stdlib::wide_from_utf8 and stdlib::utf8_from, which are among the library implementation features that are made available via stdlib’s public interface.4

The fix is not needed in the *nix world. In the *nix world fs::u8path converts the argument to std::string with no encoding change. And so, for example, in Ubuntu, using g++ 6.3.0, the code compiles and works fine without the fix.

Just as MinGW g++ 7.1’s fs::u8path punts on implementing an UTF-8 → UTF-16 conversion in Windows, with MinGW g++ 7.1 an fs::path argument to a file iostream constructor is not supported, though it’s required by C++17. The lack of fs::path argument is problematic because g++’s default standard library implementation doesn’t support wide string argument5, either, and a nartr string path argument is assumed to be Windows ANSI encoded. And yes, that’s even with UTF-8 execution character set.

There are three main solutions where portable Unicode paths are required:

  • Only C++17-compatible compilers.

    This means not using MinGW g++, or not testing parts of the code with MinGW g++, or waiting until MinGW g++’s filesystem and iostreams library implementations are fixed.

  • Pure ASCII alternative paths.

    Windows supports, although not completely and not for all Windows ‘technologies’, alternative pure ASCII paths. These are called short paths. The stdlib library provides a more robust abstraction, a best effort mostly readable native encoding nartr path, as stdlib::char_path() & friends.

  • Custom iostream class.

    If one controls the file opening code, then better replace e.g. std::ifstream with a custom iostream class that supports fs::path or wide string argument, or best, that directly and portably supports UTF-8 encoded nartr string argument. The nowide library provides that as nowide::ifstream & friends. Such a class can also relatively easily be implemented in terms of __gnu_cxx::stdio_filebuf<char>.

Alternative ASCII paths were the basis of the MinGW g++ fix employed in the early Boost Filesystem, version 2 [Boost-c], but it was discontinued with no alternative fix in version 3, apparently deferring that fix to standardization. The original filesystem TS suggested that iostream constructors in Windows implementations should support the Visual C++ extension of wide character path argument. With C++17 we additionally have iostream constructors accepting fs::path directly, except that – the problem – as of this writing, MinGW g++’s default standard library implements neither.

Figure 7 is an example of a pure ASCII alternative path in Windows.

Figure 7

For readability and to preserve as much information as possible, especially for a name of a file to be created, stdlib::char_path() provides a Windows ANSI path, not a pure ASCII path, where it retains (transcoded) those items of the original Unicode path specification that can be encoded exactly as Windows ANSI (Figure 8).

Figure 8

Where an item can’t be represented exactly as Windows ANSI and doesn’t have an alternative ASCII name, char_path replaces any non-ANSI character with stdlib::ascii::bad_char, ASCII 127. I assume that this is often the desired behaviour: deferring path validity checking to the file opening code, and just using the path with replacements if it works, e.g. for display, or for creating a file. In contrast, stdlib::char_path_or_x thtrs a std::runtime_error exception if the Unicode path can’t be represented exactly.

The design intention is to use char_path by default, e.g. for portably passing nartr paths to 3rd party library code, and as a not quite 100% but mostly Just Good Enough™ workaround/fix for filesystem-challenged implementations, like Listing 8.

Listing 8

Here, the UTF-8 path is used in the failure reporting instead of just outputting the fs::path directly, because while MinGW g++ 7.1 curiously does support that it adds simple ASCII quotes and duplicates every backslash, sort of happily sabotaging things.

As mentioned, the newly adopted-in-Boost nowide library provides streams that can be opened with UTF-8 encoded paths. And for file opening code that one controls, using an alternative file iostream implementation solves the availability problems of Windows ASCII alternative paths. For the code above, with the standalone variant of nowide, this solution entails just adding a

  #include <nowide/fstream.hpp>

replacing ifstream f{ dfp_native }; with

  nowide::ifstream f{ dfp_utf8 };

and removing the dfp_native lines, and that’s all.

With this approach, one uses each library for what it’s good at.

ASCII Alternative Paths

In the *nix world, stdlib::char_path() just returns the argument converted to UTF-8 if necessary, and in Windows it uses the following algorithm to return a best effort readable ANSI path:

let R (the result) be an empty string.

for each item in the Unicode path:

if the item is ASCII then

append it to R.

else if it converts exactly to Windows ANSI then

append the converted item to R.

else if it has an alternative ASCII name then

append the alternative ASCII name to R.

else if character substitution is permitted then

convert the item to ANSI, possibly with substitutions.

append this possibly inexact ANSI text to R.


fail by throwing a std::runtime_error.

The order of checking is crucial to not needlessly discard information.

If you want to implement this yourself, then do note that the short very Unicody π as a path item is left as is by Window’s main API function for this, GetShortPathName, presumably because π is so short. It’s quite perplexing. For, while ASCII alternative paths are a very nice feature indeed, who needs a transformation of Unicode paths to still Unicode unreadable ultimate shortness with cryptic digit sequences, tildes and uppercasing thrown in here and there? I can’t think of any need for that. It appears to be just silly.

Happily the FindFirstFile API function does give a pure ASCII alternative for that π, on a Windows installation and filesystem that supports short paths. And it apparently works fine in general, but only on one single path item, namely the last.

Problems include that short filenames in principle can be turned off via a registry setting (though it’s unlikely, considering that they e.g. appear in registry values), that short filenames can be somewhat cryptic (it’s easy to expand them back though), and that the documentation [Microsoft-c] states that they’re not available with three Windows ‘technologies’, namely SMB 3.0 Transparent Failover (TFO), SMB 3.0 with Scale-out File Shares (SO), and Cluster Shared Volume File System (CsvFS), which I read as network drives (?).

Invalid-as-UTF-8 bytes, how, what?

Nartr text bytes that are invalid as UTF-8 can occur due to a number of possible reasons, e.g. just passing raw main arguments to cout, or doing conversion from wide text to the nartr encoding of the user’s native locale, which in Windows cannot be UTF-8.

When this happens, it’s in my opinion best if it doesn’t stop output of further text, or indeed, of the text containing the bad bytes.

stdlib just replaces each bad byte with ASCII 127, DEL (see Listing 9). The result of the stdlib-based code is in Figure 9 – it works the same with g++.

Listing 9
Figure 9

The corresponding nowide-based code is in Listing 10 and the result of the nowide-based code is in Figure 10.

Listing 10
Figure 10


There are currently two C++ libraries for UTF-8 console i/o in Windows: the author’s stdlib, and the nowide library recently adopted in Boost. With stdlib, existing textbook code can work for Unicode console i/o in Windows, and since it’s a header only library it’s easy to use for novices. With nowide there is separate compilation, which can be a barrier to novices, and one’s code must be modified to explicitly use the nowide functionality, which also means that existing, unmodified code doesn’t benefit from nowide.

As of this writing, console input just didn’t work correctly with nowide –it included carriage return characters in input lines.

The nowide library’s nowide::ifstream (& family) can be very useful as a workaround for MinGW g++’s current filesystem library implementation deficiencies, when one controls the file opening code. The corresponding stdlib fix stdlib::char_path is based on Windows’ alternative ASCII names, which is easy to use and supports 3rd party library functions such as with OpenCV. It’s guaranteed to work for a path that can be represented exactly with Windows ANSI encoding, plus this approach has worked for general Unicode existing paths on all the myriad local Windows systems that the author has used. I.e. it’s not a perfect fix, but simple and usually Good Enough™.


[Boost-a] At

[Boost-b] Boost acceptance of NoWide:

[Boost-c] Referred to in a 2011 discussion between the Boost Filesystem creator Beman Dawes and the author, titled ‘Making Boost.Filesystem work with GENERAL filenames with g++ in Windows (a solution), at

[C99] C99 §7.17/2 (I used the N1256 draft, roughly C99 + TC1 + TC2 + TC3, for the quote).

[Ermey] Quoted from

[ICU] The International Components for Unicode library, available at

[Kaplan08] Still available at

[Microsoft-a] Quoting Microsoft’s documentation of setlocale: “If you provide a code page value of UTF-7 or UTF-8, setlocale will fail, returning NULL.” ATTOW that documentation was available at

[Microsoft-b] _setmode docs at

[Microsoft-c] Windows API function GetShortPathName documentation, at

[nowide] The NoWide library is available at

[stdlib] The stdlib library is available at

[Steinbach11] ‘Unicode part 1: Windows console i/o approaches’, at

[Steinbach13] ‘Portable String Literals in C++’, Overload #116, August 2013, available at

  • The BMP, the Basic Multilingual Plane, is Unicode restricted to 16 bits, like in Unicode version 1 in 1991/1992. The 21-bit version 2 came in 1996. By that time Microsoft had committed to 16-bit Unicode. Unicode 2’s UTF-16 encoding was designed to allow the existing 16-bit Unicode systems (various programming languages, + Windows) to just keep on working; a backward-compatible encoding. So most of Windows uses full UTF-16, but Windows console windows have a non-streaming API that restricts each character position to 16 bits. Hence if you output an UTF-16 surrogate pair (representing a Unicode code point outside the BMP, e.g. an emoji or an archaic Chinese glyph) to a Windows console window, you get two characters displayed, probably as “I didn’t understand that” squares.
  • To change the default font for a Windows console window, just right click the window title for a menu, and drill down into it
  • Using the name “cat”, expressed as Russian “кошка”, for an executable that lists the contents of a multi-language text file, is a weak pun. It was the best I could do.
  • ATTOW these conversion functions are limited to UTF-16 for wide text, e.g. they can’t (properly) handle emojis in the *nix world. I intend to remove that limitation, but must do one thing at a time.
  • C++17 §30.9.1/3 requires wide string filename argument support for iostreams implementations on systems with wide native paths. Prior to C++17 this was a Visual C++ extension of the standard library.

Overload Journal #140 - August 2017 + Programming Topics